Possessive non-reflexivity does not occur in non-West Germanic or Latin. Since it is known that that possessive non-reflexivity in any IE language is an innovation, the areal evidence is broadly consistent with the proposition that possessive non-reflexivity had somehow became general in the later Roman Empire in Europe despite not existing in Latin and in nearby areas Ireland, SW Germany , before being lost wherever Slavic intruded into its former domain.
For the purposes of the present program, the Balkan part of the puzzle must be ignored. As for the rest, among well-attested languages of northern and western Europe, those with objective non-reflexivity having no distinct reflexive pronouns used as objects , most notably Celtic, always have possessive non-reflexivity, whereas those with possessive non-reflexivity may or may not have objective non-reflexivity, which is typically associated with liberal use of reflexive verbs For example, French of all periods has objective reflexivity, whereas Old English does not. This subset relation seems to imply that possessive reflexivity is for some reason probably functional more difficult to sustain than is objective reflexivity.
Be that as it may, the non-Balkan part of the areal pattern seems to work as a sort of ghost image of where Celtic was once spoken as of around B.
The proposed presentation will be largely concerned with how Celtic influence could work to explain the different types of possessive non-reflexivity seen in southerly West Germanic, where the reflexive form e. Modern Romanian. Columbus: Slavica. Entwistle, W.
Russian and the Slavonic Languages. Maiden, Martin. A Linguistic History of Italian. Mann, Stuart An Albanian Historical Grammar. Hamburg: Helmut Buske. Orel, Vladimir. Leiden: Brill. Penny, Ralph A History of the Spanish Language. Cambridge: University Press. Pope, Mildred. From Latin to Modern French. Manchester: University Press. Prokosch, Eduard. A Comparative Germanic Grammar. Philadelphia: Linguistic Society of America.
Schmalstieg, William. An Introduction to Old Church Slavonic. Sihler, Andrew. New Comparative Grammar of Greek and Latin. Oxford: University Press.
Straddling the boundary between lexicon and syntax, phrasal borrowing - the material borrowing of analysable multi-word units - is cross-linguistically well-attested Gomez Rendon ; Onysko Such forms presumably start out as multi-word code-switches, a phenomenon widely studied from a synchronic perspective Myers-Scotton The diachronic impact of such switches on grammar, however, has received little attention.
In cases where phrasal borrowings encompass whole paradigms, they remain analysable even to monolingual speakers. Their internal syntax is thus integrated into all speakers' competence, becoming part of the grammar of the language. Yet the concept of phrasal borrowing is absent from the indexes of recent reference books on language contact such as Matras or Hickey A comparative study of paradigmatic phrasal borrowing across the Arabic contact zone reveals that the conditions governing phrasal borrowing within each language show remarkable cross-linguistic consistency.
In an ergative language, the single argument " subject " of an intransitive verb behaves like the object of a transitive verb, and differently from the agent of a transitive verb. Yes—Save my other items for later. Dutch Journal of Applied Linguistics 5 2 , , Grierson, G. Theoretical and methodological developments in Processability Theory, , Butt, M. Klimov , we can also observe that the same treatment of A and Obi.
A cross-linguistic condition also applies to all the languages concerned: 3 the borrowing of numerals below Although the only test cases available for it seem to be in the Arabic contact zone, Condition 1 amounts to the diachronic manifestation of a rather cross-linguistically robust principle elaborated synchronically by Myers-Scotton : the Embedded Language Island Hypothesis. Conditions 2 and 3 can more readily be tested across a wider area, and appear equally valid outside the Arab world.
Together, these conditions make phrasal borrowing in the domain of numeral phrases relatively predictable.
References Destaing, Edmond. Paris: Ernest Leroux. Gomez Rendon, J. Leiden: University of Leiden. Hickey, Raymond ed. The Handbook of Language Contact. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell. Kossmann, Maarten.
The Arabic Influence on Northern Berber. Matras, Yaron. Language Contact. Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics. A grammar of Domari. Mouton Grammar Library Berlin: De Gruyter. Myers-Scotton, Carol. Duelling Languages: Grammatical Structure in Codeswitching. Onysko, Alexander. Syntactically conditioned code-switching? The syntax of numerals in Beni-Snous Berber.
International Journal of Bilingualism 20 2. Meisel , Meisel et al Winford Both perspectives, importantly, recognize that not all bilinguals play an equal role in facilitating language change. In this framework the type of bilingual speaker implicated in structural transfer is dominant in the source language as opposed to the recipient language. Focusing specifically on core grammatical change, Meisel and Meisel et al propose that the likely agents of change are successive child and adult L2 bilinguals.
The early modern Dutch urban context is known to be one of extreme demographic instability. From the late sixteenth to the mid-seventeenth century in particular, several cities experienced a doubling or tripling of their population, fueled by individuals from a variety of linguistic backgrounds cf. The socio-historical context is one where non-dominant speakers could be argued to have played a significant role in ongoing structural changes, particularly in the urban centers where demographic change was most extreme.
However, locating the linguistic evidence to support this scenario can, for a variety of reasons, prove nigh impossible.
In this talk I address several methodological challenges in determining the role that non-dominant multilingual speakers likely played as agents of change in the early modern Dutch context when it is well-documented that they made up a significant proportion of the growing urban population at this time. Dutch archives are teeming with manuscripts preserved from the early modern period, but these data sources are not necessarily random in terms of the types of speakers they represent.
In municipal archives there is a bias towards preservation of materials relevant to the local town, city or province so that there is great potential for these sources to reflect stability and continuity rather than instability and change.
http://leondumoulin.nl/language/short/pics-two.php Koch and Oesterreicher —represent a minute fraction of the manuscripts preserved in Dutch archival collections. While it may be tempting to assume that egodocuments capture a wider variety of types of speakers known to have been present in this turbulent socio-historical context, this appears not to be the case cf. Lindeman et al More problematic is the fact that even when we base our analyses of contact-induced change on egodocuments, we may not know enough background information about their authors to determine what types of speakers they might have been monolingual, bilingual, non-dominant bilingual, etc.
While locating data from non-dominant bilinguals may be akin to finding needles in haystacks, by adopting an approach that pays attention to different types of speakers, I argue that we can better evaluate sociolinguistic biases in the historical evidence and so reconstruct more accurately the circumstances that favor the diffusion of innovations. Coetsem, Frans van. A general and unified theory of the transmission process in language contact.
Romanistisches Jahrbuch 36, Informatiestromen en de herkomstgebieden van migranten in Nederland in de vroegmoderne tijd.
Tijdschrift voor sociale en economische geschiedenis 3, Lindeman, R. Egodocumenten van Noord-Nederlanders van de zestiende tot begin negentiende eeuw. Rotterdam: Erasmus Universiteit. Bilingual language acquisition and theories of diachronic change: bilingualism as cause and effect of grammatical change.
Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 14 2 , Language acquisition and change. A morphosyntactic perspective. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Nederveen Meerkerk, Elise van. De economische aantrekkingskracht van vroegmoderne steden. Amsterdam: Uitgeverij Bert Bakker. Zanden, Jan Luiten van, and Maarten Prak. Demographic change and migration flows in Holland between and Working on labor.