Such functions include: sensory perception, motor control, symbolic thought, logical thought, speech, abstraction, integration synthesis , orientation, concentration, judgment about danger, reality testing, adaptive ability, executive decision-making, hygiene, and self-preservation.
Freud noted that inhibition is one method that the mind may utilize to interfere with any of these functions in order to avoid painful emotions. Hartmann s pointed out that there may be delays or deficits in such functions. Frosch described differences in those people who demonstrated damage to their relationship to reality, but who seemed able to test it. According to ego psychology, ego strengths, later described by Otto F. Kernberg , include the capacities to control oral, sexual, and destructive impulses; to tolerate painful affects without falling apart; and to prevent the eruption into consciousness of bizarre symbolic fantasy.
modernpsychtraining.com/cache/locator/ceh-smartphone-surveillance-app.php Synthetic functions, in contrast to autonomous functions, arise from the development of the ego and serve the purpose of managing conflict processes. Defenses are synthetic functions that protect the conscious mind from awareness of forbidden impulses and thoughts. One purpose of ego psychology has been to emphasize that some mental functions can be considered to be basic, rather than derivatives of wishes, affects, or defenses.
However, autonomous ego functions can be secondarily affected because of unconscious conflict. For example, a patient may have an hysterical amnesia memory being an autonomous function because of intrapsychic conflict wishing not to remember because it is too painful. Taken together, the above theories present a group of metapsychological assumptions.
Therefore, the inclusive group of the different classical theories provides a cross-sectional view of human mentation. There are six "points of view", five described by Freud and a sixth added by Hartmann. Unconscious processes can therefore be evaluated from each of these six points of view. The "points of view" are: 1. Topographic 2. Dynamic the theory of conflict 3. Economic the theory of energy flow 4. Structural 5. Genetic propositions concerning origin and development of psychological functions and 6. Adaptational psychological phenomena as it relates to the external world. Modern conflict theory, a variation of ego psychology, is a revised version of structural theory, most notably different by altering concepts related to where repressed thoughts were stored Freud, , Modern conflict theory addresses emotional symptoms and character traits as complex solutions to mental conflict.
Moreover, healthy functioning adaptive is also determined, to a great extent, by resolutions of conflict. A major objective of modern conflict-theory psychoanalysis is to change the balance of conflict in a patient by making aspects of the less adaptive solutions also called "compromise formations" conscious so that they can be rethought, and more adaptive solutions found. Object relations theory attempts to explain the ups and downs of human relationships through a study of how internal representations of the self and others are organized.
The clinical symptoms that suggest object relations problems typically developmental delays throughout life include disturbances in an individual's capacity to feel warmth, empathy, trust, sense of security, identity stability, consistent emotional closeness, and stability in relationships with significant others. It is not suggested that one should trust everyone, for example.
Contemporary Controversies in Psychoanalytic Theory, Technique, and Their Applications: Medicine & Health Science Books @ Amazon. com. Contemporary Controversies in Psychoanalytic Theory, Techniques, and Their Appli PART ONE: THEORY AND APPLICATIONS. 1 freud's theories and their contemporary variations. 1 freud's theories and their contemporary variations. (pp .
Concepts regarding internal representations also sometimes termed, "introspects", "self and object representations", or "internalization of self and other" although often attributed to Melanie Klein , were actually first mentioned by Sigmund Freud in his early concepts of drive theory Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality , Freud's paper "Mourning and Melancholia", for example, hypothesized that unresolved grief was caused by the survivor's internalized image of the deceased becoming fused with that of the survivor, and then the survivor shifting unacceptable anger toward the deceased onto the now complex self-image.
Vamik Volkan , in "Linking Objects and Linking Phenomena", expanded on Freud's thoughts on this, describing the syndromes of "Established pathological mourning" vs. Margaret Mahler Mahler, Fine, and Bergman, The Psychological Birth of the Human Infant , and her group, first in New York, then in Philadelphia, described distinct phases and subphases of child development leading to "separation-individuation" during the first three years of life, stressing the importance of constancy of parental figures, in the face of the child's destructive aggression, to the child's internalizations, stability of affect management, and ability to develop healthy autonomy.
John Frosch, Otto Kernberg , Salman Akhtar and Sheldon Bach have developed the theory of self and object constancy as it affects adult psychiatric problems such as psychosis and borderline states.
Peter Blos described in a book called On Adolescence , how similar separation-individuation struggles occur during adolescence, of course with a different outcome from the first three years of life: the teen usually, eventually, leaves the parents' house this varies with the culture. During adolescence, Erik Erikson —s described the "identity crisis", that involves identity-diffusion anxiety.
In order for an adult to be able to experience "Warm-ETHICS" warmth, empathy, trust, holding environment Winnicott , identity, closeness, and stability in relationships see Blackman, Defenses: How the Mind Shields Itself , , the teenager must resolve the problems with identity and redevelop self and object constancy. Self psychology emphasizes the development of a stable and integrated sense of self through empathic contacts with other humans, primary significant others conceived of as "selfobjects". Selfobjects meet the developing self's needs for mirroring, idealization, and twinship, and thereby strengthen the developing self.
The process of treatment proceeds through "transmuting internalizations" in which the patient gradually internalizes the selfobject functions provided by the therapist. Lacanian psychoanalysis , which integrates psychoanalysis with structural linguistics and Hegelian philosophy, is especially popular in France and parts of Latin America. Lacanian psychoanalysis is a departure from the traditional British and American psychoanalysis, which is predominantly Ego psychology. Lacan's concepts concern the " mirror stage ", the "Real" , the "Imaginary" , and the "Symbolic" , and the claim that "the unconscious is structured as a language".
Though a major influence on psychoanalysis in France and parts of Latin America, Lacan and his ideas have taken longer to be translated into English and he has thus had a lesser impact on psychoanalysis and psychotherapy in the English-speaking world. In the United Kingdom and the United States, his ideas are most widely used to analyze texts in literary theory. Interpersonal psychoanalysis accents the nuances of interpersonal interactions, particularly how individuals protect themselves from anxiety by establishing collusive interactions with others, and the relevance of actual experiences with other persons developmentally e.
This is contrasted with the primacy of intrapsychic forces, as in classical psychoanalysis. Some psychoanalysts have been labeled culturalist , because of the prominence they attributed culture in the genesis of behavior. Feminist theories of psychoanalysis emerged towards the second half of the 20th century, in an effort to articulate the feminine, the maternal and sexual difference and development from the point of view of female subjects.
For Freud, male is subject and female is object. For Freud , Winnicott and the object relations theories, the mother is structured as the object of the infant's rejection Freud and destruction Winnicott. For Lacan , the "woman" can either accept the phallic symbolic as an object or incarnate a lack in the symbolic dimension that informs the structure of the human subject. Feminist psychoanalysis is mainly post-Freudian and post-Lacanian with theorists like Toril Moi , Joan Copjec , Juliet Mitchell ,  Teresa Brennan  and Griselda Pollock ,  following French feminist psychoanalysis,  the gaze and sexual difference in, of and from the feminine.
The "adaptive paradigm of psychotherapy" develops out of the work of Robert Langs. The adaptive paradigm interprets psychic conflict primarily in terms of conscious and unconscious adaptation to reality. Relational psychoanalysis combines interpersonal psychoanalysis with object-relations theory and with inter-subjective theory as critical for mental health. It was introduced by Stephen Mitchell. Fonagy and Target, in London, have propounded their view of the necessity of helping certain detached, isolated patients, develop the capacity for "mentalization" associated with thinking about relationships and themselves.
Arietta Slade, Susan Coates , and Daniel Schechter in New York have additionally contributed to the application of relational psychoanalysis to treatment of the adult patient-as-parent, the clinical study of mentalization in parent-infant relationships, and the intergenerational transmission of attachment and trauma.
The term interpersonal-relational psychoanalysis is often used as a professional identification. Psychoanalysts under this broader umbrella debate about what precisely are the differences between the two schools, without any current clear consensus. The term " intersubjectivity " was introduced in psychoanalysis by George E.
Atwood and Robert Stolorow Intersubjective approaches emphasize how both personality development and the therapeutic process are influenced by the interrelationship between the patient's subjective perspective and that of others. Fosshage, Donna M. Levenson, Jay Greenberg , Edward R.
Ritvo, Beatrice Beebe, Frank M. Lachmann, Herbert Rosenfeld and Daniel Stern. Interventions based on this approach are primarily intended to provide an emotional-maturational communication to the patient, rather than to promote intellectual insight. These interventions, beyond insight directed aims, are used to resolve resistances that are presented in the clinical setting.
This school of psychoanalysis has fostered training opportunities for students in the United States and from countries worldwide. Its journal Modern Psychoanalysis has been published since The various psychoses involve deficits in the autonomous ego functions see above of integration organization of thought, in abstraction ability, in relationship to reality and in reality testing.
In depressions with psychotic features, the self-preservation function may also be damaged sometimes by overwhelming depressive affect. Because of the integrative deficits often causing what general psychiatrists call "loose associations", "blocking", " flight of ideas ", "verbigeration", and "thought withdrawal" , the development of self and object representations is also impaired.
In patients whose autonomous ego functions are more intact, but who still show problems with object relations, the diagnosis often falls into the category known as "borderline". Borderline patients also show deficits, often in controlling impulses, affects, or fantasies — but their ability to test reality remains more or less intact. Adults who do not experience guilt and shame, and who indulge in criminal behavior, are usually diagnosed as psychopaths, or, using DSM-IV-TR , antisocial personality disorder.
Panic, phobias, conversions, obsessions, compulsions and depressions analysts call these " neurotic symptoms " are not usually caused by deficits in functions. Instead, they are caused by intrapsychic conflicts. The conflicts are generally among sexual and hostile-aggressive wishes, guilt and shame, and reality factors. The conflicts may be conscious or unconscious, but create anxiety, depressive affect, and anger.
Finally, the various elements are managed by defensive operations — essentially shut-off brain mechanisms that make people unaware of that element of conflict. Neurotic symptoms may occur with or without deficits in ego functions, object relations, and ego strengths. Therefore, it is not uncommon to encounter obsessive-compulsive schizophrenics, panic patients who also suffer with borderline personality disorder , etc.
This section above is partial to ego psychoanalytic theory "autonomous ego functions". As the "autonomous ego functions" theory is only a theory, it may yet be proven incorrect.
Freudian theories hold that adult problems can be traced to unresolved conflicts from certain phases of childhood and adolescence , caused by fantasy, stemming from their own drives. Freud, based on the data gathered from his patients early in his career, suspected that neurotic disturbances occurred when children were sexually abused in childhood the so-called seduction theory.
Later, Freud came to believe that, although child abuse occurs, neurotic symptoms were not associated with this. He believed that neurotic people often had unconscious conflicts that involved incestuous fantasies deriving from different stages of development. He found the stage from about three to six years of age preschool years, today called the "first genital stage" to be filled with fantasies of having romantic relationships with both parents.
Arguments were quickly generated in early 20th-century Vienna about whether adult seduction of children, i.
The Science of Stories. More recent research casts doubt on these claims. Supervision is done in the supervisor's office, where the trainee presents material from the analytic work that week, examines the unconscious conflicts with the supervisor, and learns, discusses, and is advised about technique. Medical Microbiology and Virology. The patient, in a relaxed posture, is directed to say whatever comes to mind. Critical Care Surgery. Ricoeur claimed that psychoanalysis emphasizes the polyvocal or many-voiced qualities of language, focusing on utterances that mean more than one thing.
There still is no complete agreement, although nowadays professionals recognize the negative effects of child sexual abuse on mental health. Many psychoanalysts who work with children have studied the actual effects of child abuse, which include ego and object relations deficits and severe neurotic conflicts. Much research has been done on these types of trauma in childhood, and the adult sequelae of those.
In studying the childhood factors that start neurotic symptom development, Freud found a constellation of factors that, for literary reasons, he termed the Oedipus complex based on the play by Sophocles , Oedipus Rex , where the protagonist unwittingly kills his father Laius and marries his mother Jocasta.