Androgens produce several complications such as liver dysfunctions and liver tumors, prostate gland enlargement, difficulty urinating, premature closure of epiphyseal cartilages, testicular atrophy, infertility, and immune system depression. The physiological strain caused by these substances is often greater than what the body can handle, leading to unpredictable and dangerous effects and linking their use to heart attacks, strokes, and impaired cardiac function.
objectifcoaching.com/components/ashtabula/jessica-marseillais-sex.php Figure 2. Hormonal regulation of the female reproductive system involves hormones from the hypothalamus, pituitary, and ovaries. In females, FSH stimulates development of egg cells, called ova, which develop in structures called follicles. Follicle cells produce the hormone inhibin, which inhibits FSH production. LH also plays a role in the development of ova, induction of ovulation, and stimulation of estradiol and progesterone production by the ovaries, as illustrated in Figure 2.
Estradiol and progesterone are steroid hormones that prepare the body for pregnancy. Estradiol produces secondary sex characteristics in females, while both estradiol and progesterone regulate the menstrual cycle.
Prolactin stimulates the production of milk by the mammary glands following childbirth. Prolactin levels are regulated by the hypothalamic hormones prolactin-releasing hormone PRH and prolactin-inhibiting hormone PIH , which is now known to be dopamine. The posterior pituitary releases the hormone oxytocin , which stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth. The uterine smooth muscles are not very sensitive to oxytocin until late in pregnancy when the number of oxytocin receptors in the uterus peaks.
Stretching of tissues in the uterus and cervix stimulates oxytocin release during childbirth. Contractions increase in intensity as blood levels of oxytocin rise via a positive feedback mechanism until the birth is complete. Oxytocin also stimulates the contraction of myoepithelial cells around the milk-producing mammary glands. This overwhelms the normal negative feedback loop and can rarely cause ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in women. Symptoms of this include enlarging of the ovaries and a potentially dangerous accumulation of fluid in the abdomen triggered by the rise in ovarian steroid output , which leads to pain in the pelvic area.
In women, a lack of follicle stimulating hormone leads to incomplete development at puberty and poor ovarian function ovarian failure. In this situation ovarian follicles do not grow properly and do not release an egg, thus leading to infertility. Since levels of follicle stimulating hormone in the bloodstream are low, this condition is called hypo gonadotrophic- hypo gonadism. Sufficient follicle stimulating hormone action is also needed for proper sperm production. In the case of complete absence of follicle stimulating hormone in men, lack of puberty and infertility due to lack of sperm azoospermia can occur.
Partial follicle stimulating hormone deficiency in men can cause delayed puberty and limited sperm production oligozoospermia , but fathering a child may still be possible.
If the loss of follicle stimulating hormone occurs after puberty, there will be a similar loss of fertility. About Contact Events News.
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Human body. Home Hormones Follicle stimulating hormone.
Follicle stimulating hormone Follicle stimulating hormone is produced by the pituitary gland. It regulates the functions of both the ovaries and testes.
Lack or insufficiency of it can cause infertility or subfertility both in men and women. Glossary All Hormones Resources for Hormones.
The entire male reproductive system is dependent on hormones, which are chemicals that stimulate or regulate the activity of cells or organs. The primary hormones involved in the functioning of the male reproductive system are follicle-stimulating hormone FSH , luteinizing hormone LH and testosterone. FSH and LH are produced by the pituitary gland located at the base of the brain.
FSH is necessary for sperm production spermatogenesis , and LH stimulates the production of testosterone, which is necessary to continue the process of spermatogenesis. Testosterone also is important in the development of male characteristics, including muscle mass and strength, fat distribution, bone mass and sex drive. Menopause is a term used to describe the end of a woman's normal menstrual function. Female menopause is marked by changes in hormone production.
The testes, unlike the ovaries, do not lose the ability to make hormones. If a man is healthy, he may be able to make sperm well into his 80s or longer. On the other hand, subtle changes in the function of the testes may occur as early as 45 to 50 years of age, and more dramatically after the age of For many men, hormone production may remain normal into old age, while others may have declining hormone production earlier on, sometimes as a result of an illness, such as diabetes.
Whether decreasing testicular function contributes to such symptoms as fatigue, weakness, depression or impotence often remains uncertain. If testosterone levels are low, hormone replacement therapy may help relieve symptoms, such as the loss of interest in sex, depression, and fatigue. However, replacing male hormones can make prostate cancer worse, and may make atherosclerosis hardening of the arteries worse, also. A man should receive a complete physical examination and laboratory tests should be performed starting hormone replacement therapy. How many middle-aged men will benefit from such therapy remains an open question.
Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center. Advertising on our site helps support our mission. We do not endorse non-Cleveland Clinic products or services. These external structures include the penis, the scrotum, and the testicles. Urology Male Reproductive Anatomy The organs of the male reproductive system are specialized for the following functions: To produce, maintain and transport sperm the male reproductive cells and protective fluid semen To discharge sperm within the female reproductive tract To produce and secrete male sex hormones The male reproductive anatomy includes internal and external structures.
What are the external male reproductive structures?