Wikchamni Grammar

Yokutsan languages
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For nouns, the possibilities of amplification are somewhat more restricted than for verbs in all the languages ; but it is always possible to shift a stem from the verbal class to the nominal class by means of appropriate suffixes. Since the contrary process is possible too, in all these languages a stem can theoretically be nominalized or verbalized various times, before receiving the final endings, which conclusively establish its nature.

Anyway this theoretical possibility is never carried on to a large extend in actuel speech. Suffixation works more or less the same way in all languages, each suffixe beeing tied together with some morphophonemic internal change of the base, or stem to which the suffixe is added. Where the suffixe is actually a zero alternate, or in some cases where there is no suffixe as such, the internal change alone indicates the grammatical relation.

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In Yokuts internal change can be labeled, following Newman's terminology, 'dynamic vocalic change ' and it is mainly represented by modifications in quality, quantity of vowels, glottalization and change of stress position. In Miwok internal change operates on prosody quantity of vowels, stress and syllabic length and may be indicated by metathesis, amplification and contraction of stems and glottalization. No indications of this sort are given for Maidu. On the contrary, in the latter language a certain number of so called prefixes is reported, but their status as true prefixes is uncertain and they will be discussed later.

Vowel harmony. All three languages seem to present, along with the internal conditioned change, some sort of vowel harmony. The extensive system of vocalic change can be conceived as operating on two planes : on the one hand, dynamic vowel processes effect ablaut changes which are not to be explained in terms of mechanical phonetic conditions ; on the other hand, a number of phonetic processes introduce additional vowel changes of a purely mechanical nature.

In the formation of stems these two planes interact A mechanical coordination of the stem vowels within the stem itself and with the vowels of the following suffixes is particularly clear in Yokuts and Miwok, where almost all suffixes can have a double vocalism, according to.

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In Maidu something similar is found in the complex vocalism of some suffixes, which mostly agrees with the vocalism of the stem. Verbal system. Many aspect and voice relations are indicated, as shown above, by means of verbal derivational suffixes. Various tenses and modes are marked, howewer, to a certain extent ; particularly in Miwok, large use is made of tense and mode indicators with nominalized forms. In Miwok even nouns can take tense indicators. Noun case system. In all the languages nouns are mainly provided with similar case systems which can be considered diagnostic for the class.

Five cases with analogous values are found everywhere : a subjective, an objective, a possessive, an ablative, a locative.

Particular suffixes or instances of internal change indicate plurality, altho this category is not so common in some language, particu larly in Maidu. In all three languages reduplication is used to a certain extent to express grammatical relations, mainly iterative or repeated action. Howewer, while in Yokuts a set of verbal stems is characterized by reduplication, nothing similar can be found in Miwok and Maidu.

Word compounding. No sure case of word compounding is to be found inYokuts, and the process seems to be exceptional in Miwok, while it is to be found to a certain extent in Maidu. In all three languages, loan words seem to consist largely of noun bases, and there is a very small number of loan verb bases.

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These loan words enter into the regular suffixation processes of the languages ; in Miwok, howewer, there seems to be a verbal suffixe, which has the special function of integrating loan verbal bases into the native stem classes. Word order. In all three languages it seems that word order has no grammatical relevance.

Direct comparisons can be made between the suffixes of the three languages listed here below : in many cases either phonemic shape or both phonemic. The general nature of the present paper, howewer, does not make it possible to point out in detail all of these possibilities, which have been simply presented within the overall frame of the structure of each language.

In some cases the numbering system will itself lead to comparisons of some evidence. But the structures of the three languages, as it was to be expected, do not cover each other exactly and it is therefore not possible to provide a perfectly overlapping system of classification for all the suffixes listed.

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Stem determination. There are in Yokuts four classes of stems : verbs, nouns, particles and proclitics. The suffixes may be divided as follows :. Diagnostic for verbs : classes , 30, 40, , Diagnostic for nouns : classes 70, 80, , Diagnostic for proclities : class The language has no prefixes, altho some petrified forms may indicate the existence of such a process in older times. No cases of word compounding are found.

Reduplication is used to indicate repeated action and, with verb- numerals, distribution. One type of stem for verbs is formed by reduplication. Loan words are found only among nouns and proclitics. Examples of loan words :. The language indicates all his relations by means of suffixes. When the phonemic shape of the suffixe is zero, the internal change provides the necessary indications. This happens in a few cases : when the suffixe is a zero alternate :. In our classification of Yokuts suffixes, the classes indicated by a two digit number except 40 correspond to Newman's thematizing suffixes ; class 40 to auxiliary suffixes ; all classes indicated by a three digit number to final suffixes.

Class Common denominator : voice and aspect.

Many suffixes of class can occur in two positions, either immediately after the base Base suffixes or after other suffixes of the same class Theme suffixes. When class suffixes occur in first position, bases undergo phonemic internal change.

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Suffixes n. Common denominator : durative.

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The total population of Inuit speaking their traditional languages is difficult to assess with precision, since most counts rely on self-reported census data that may not accurately reflect usage or competence. It is one of the two Delaware languages, the other being Munsee. History European and Native American Conflicts The Spanish were reluctant to settle in this area because of climate and the danger they perceived from the local Native American population. The Language of the Kitanemuks of California. All suffixes not belonging to classes and 30 occur in first position immediately after the base only if suffixes of classes and 30 are lacking. But the structures of the three languages, as it was to be expected, do not cover each other exactly and it is therefore not possible to provide a perfectly overlapping system of classification for all the suffixes listed.

Suffixes of class 30 can be labeled durative of the base system, since they occur only in the first position, immediately after the base. For their common denominator and opposition within classes compare suffixes of class All suffixes of class 30 can be considered as formed by a suffixe -'a compare n. All suffixes not belonging to classes and 30 occur in first position immediately after the base only if suffixes of classes and 30 are lacking. Common denominator : consequent.

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Suffixes 41, 42, can be labeled durative of the theme system, since they occur only after a verbal theme. For their common denominator and opposition between classes compare class Suffixes 45, 48, 49 can occur either after a base or after a verbal theme. For the common denominator compare n. Suffixe 48 with a preconsonantal strong stem of triliteral bases, plus the suffixe wiyi can form a new verbal stem.

Common denominator : verbal noun. Common denominator : agentive. All suffixes of class after a verbal root base or theme shift it from verbal class to nominal class. Derivation for nouns. Anin Yaw. About this Item: Univ of California Pr, Shows some signs of wear, and may have some markings on the inside.

[Introduction to Linguistics] (OLD) Word Order, Grammar, and Phrase Structure Rules

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